Cell division is the process by which the cell divides and forms two or more daughter cells. It is usually a small segment of the larger cell cycle. The type of cell division in the eukaryotes is known as the Mitosis, and it leaves the daughter cell capable of dividing again. The corresponding sort of the cell division in the prokaryote is also known as the meiosis. There is one another type of cell division present in the eukaryotes, called the meiosis, a cell is permanently transformed into a gamete which cannot be divided further again until fertilization.
For simple unicellular organisms such as the amoeba, one cell division is equivalent to reproduction? an entire new organism is created. On a larger scale, mitotic cell division can create progeny from multi cellular organisms, such as plants that grow from cuttings. Cell division also enables the reproducing organisms to develop from the one-celled zygote, which itself was produced by cell division from gametes. And after growth, cell division allows for continual renewal and repair of the organism. A human being?s body experiences about 10,000 trillion cell divisions in a lifetime.
Mitosis is the process in which a eukaryotic cell separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus, into two identical sets in two daughter nuclei. It is generally followed immediately by cytokinesis, which divides the nuclei, cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two daughter cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle – the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells, genetically identical to each other and to their parent cell.
The process of mitosis is complex and highly regulated. The sequence of events is divided into phases, corresponding to the completion of one set of activities and the start of the next. These stages are prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. During the process of mitosis the pairs of chromosomes condense and attach to fibers that pull the sister chromatids to opposite sides of the cell. The cell then divides in cytokinesis, to produce two identical daughter cells.
In biology or life science, meiosis (pronounced my-oh-sis) is a process of reductional division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is halved. In animals, meiosis always results in the formation of gametes, while in other organisms it can give rise to spores. Before meiosis begins, the DNA in the original cell is replicated. Thus, meiosis starts with homologous chromosomes.
These are the two kind of cell division which is really prominent in living organism. I really feel that these are the most important processes in which the cell takes part or are related with.